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Israel and Spain have maintained diplomatic ties since Israel has an embassy in Madrid. Spain has an embassy in Tel Aviv , an honorary consulate in Haifa and a General Consulate in Jerusalem , which is regarded as diplomatic missions to the city of Jerusalem including both West and East Jerusalem , Gaza and the territories of the West Bank.
The two countries are also involved with various programmes and agreements through the European Union , of which Spain is a member, and its relations with Israel.
The pro-Arab dialectic of previous Francoist governments had created a stance that was very difficult to overcome even after the transition to democracy.
Nevertheless, small steps were taken towards rapproachment, including informal contacts by Samuel Hadas , the Israeli representative to the United Nations World Tourism Organization based in Madrid.
Further conversations with the Ambassadors from Arab states in Madrid followed in January next year, advising them of Spain forthcoming plans.
Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 January Soon after, a representative office for the PLO opened in Madrid "as evidence of Spain traditional policy of friendship with the Palestinian people and as an instrument to achieve a lasting, just and global solution to the Israeli-Arab conflict ".
In , Spain lifted its veto on Israel's admission to the Western European Group of the United Nations, on a basis of permanent renewal of temporary full membership , ending Israel administrative limbo, as its membership in the Asian Group had been withheld due to the large majority of Muslim countries in the Asian block opposing.
In October , Spanish Crown Prince Felipe and his wife, Princess Letizia, arrived in Israel for a two-day state visit to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations and meet with local scientists.
Many Israelis are Sephardi Jews , culturally associated with the Iberian Peninsula from where Jews were expelled in the late-fifteenth century.
Many Israelis are also of Spanish and Portuguese Jewish extraction from before the expulsion of Jews from the Iberian peninsula.
Some Israelis live in Spain today, and there is also a small contemporary Spanish Jews community.
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In , the territory was divided between Britain and France under the mandate system , and the British-administered area which included modern day Israel was named Mandatory Palestine.
Since the existence of the earliest Jewish diaspora , many Jews have aspired to return to "Zion" and the "Land of Israel",  though the amount of effort that should be spent towards such an aim was a matter of dispute.
The first wave of modern Jewish migration to Ottoman-ruled Palestine , known as the First Aliyah , began in , as Jews fled pogroms in Eastern Europe.
The Second Aliyah —14 , began after the Kishinev pogrom ; some 40, Jews settled in Palestine, although nearly half of them left eventually.
In , the Jewish Legion , a group primarily of Zionist volunteers, assisted in the British conquest of Palestine. This was a major cause of the Arab revolt of —39 during which the British Mandate authorities alongside the Zionist militias of Haganah and Irgun killed 5, Arabs and wounded 14,,   resulting in over ten percent of the adult male Palestinian Arab population killed, wounded, imprisoned or exiled.
With countries around the world turning away Jewish refugees fleeing the Holocaust , a clandestine movement known as Aliyah Bet was organized to bring Jews to Palestine.
After World War II, Britain found itself in intense conflict with the Jewish community over Jewish immigration limits, as well as continued conflict with the Arab community over limit levels.
The Haganah joined Irgun and Lehi in an armed struggle against British rule. The Yishuv attempted to bring these refugees to Palestine but many were turned away or rounded up and placed in detention camps in Atlit and Cyprus by the British.
On 22 July , Irgun attacked the British administrative headquarters for Palestine, which was housed in the southern wing  of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem.
It was conceived as a response to Operation Agatha a series of widespread raids, including one on the Jewish Agency , conducted by the British authorities and was the deadliest directed at the British during the Mandate era.
On 15 May , the General Assembly of the newly formed United Nations resolved that the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine be created "to prepare for consideration at the next regular session of the Assembly a report on the question of Palestine.
The Jewish Agency , which was the recognized representative of the Jewish community, accepted the plan. After a year of fighting, a ceasefire was declared and temporary borders, known as the Green Line , were established.
The UN estimated that more than , Palestinians were expelled by or fled from advancing Israeli forces during the conflict—what would become known in Arabic as the Nakba "catastrophe".
Israel was admitted as a member of the UN by majority vote on 11 May Immigration to Israel during the late s and early s was aided by the Israeli Immigration Department and the non-government sponsored Mossad LeAliyah Bet lit.
Mossad LeAliyah Bet was disbanded in The immigrants came for differing reasons: An influx of Holocaust survivors and Jews from Arab and Muslim countries to Israel during the first three years increased the number of Jews from , to 1,, By , the population of Israel rose to two million.
The need to solve the crisis led Ben-Gurion to sign a reparations agreement with West Germany that triggered mass protests by Jews angered at the idea that Israel could accept monetary compensation for the Holocaust.
During the s, Israel was frequently attacked by Palestinian fedayeen , nearly always against civilians,  mainly from the Egyptian-occupied Gaza Strip,  leading to several Israeli counter-raids.
In , Great Britain and France aimed at regaining control of the Suez Canal , which the Egyptians had nationalized.
The continued blockade of the Suez Canal and Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping, together with the growing amount of Fedayeen attacks against Israel's southern population, and recent Arab grave and threatening statements, prompted Israel to attack Egypt.
Since , Arab countries, concerned over Israeli plans to divert waters of the Jordan River into the coastal plain ,  had been trying to divert the headwaters to deprive Israel of water resources, provoking tensions between Israel on the one hand, and Syria and Lebanon on the other.
Arab nationalists led by Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser refused to recognize Israel, and called for its destruction.
Jordan, Syria and Iraq responded and attacked Israel. Following the war and the " Three No's " resolution of the Arab League and during the — War of Attrition , Israel faced attacks from the Egyptians in the Sinai Peninsula, and from Palestinian groups targeting Israelis in the occupied territories, in Israel proper, and around the world.
Most important among the various Palestinian and Arab groups was the Palestinian Liberation Organization PLO , established in , which initially committed itself to "armed struggle as the only way to liberate the homeland".
The Israeli government responded with an assassination campaign against the organizers of the massacre, a bombing and a raid on the PLO headquarters in Lebanon.
The war ended on 25 October with Israel successfully repelling Egyptian and Syrian forces but having suffered over 2, soldiers killed in a war which collectively took 10—35, lives in about 20 days.
Israeli commandos carried out an operation in which out of Israeli hostages were successfully rescued. The Knesset elections marked a major turning point in Israeli political history as Menachem Begin 's Likud party took control from the Labor Party.
The PLO soon resumed its policy of attacks against Israel. In the next few years, the PLO infiltrated the south and kept up a sporadic shelling across the border.
Israel carried out numerous retaliatory attacks by air and on the ground. Meanwhile, Begin's government provided incentives for Israelis to settle in the occupied West Bank, increasing friction with the Palestinians in that area.
Jerusalem, Capital of Israel , passed in , was believed by some to reaffirm Israel's annexation of Jerusalem by government decree, and reignited international controversy over the status of the city.
No Israeli legislation has defined the territory of Israel and no act specifically included East Jerusalem therein. Several waves of Ethiopian Jews immigrated to Israel since the s, while between and , immigration from the post-Soviet states increased Israel's population by twelve percent.
On 7 June , the Israeli air force destroyed Iraq's sole nuclear reactor under construction just outside Baghdad , in order to impede Iraq's nuclear weapons program.
An Israeli government inquiry—the Kahan Commission —would later hold Begin, Sharon and several Israeli generals as indirectly responsible for the Sabra and Shatila massacre.
Israel withdrew from most of Lebanon in , but maintained a borderland buffer zone in southern Lebanon until , from where Israeli forces engaged in conflict with Hezbollah.
The First Intifada , a Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule,  broke out in , with waves of uncoordinated demonstrations and violence occurring in the occupied West Bank and Gaza.
Over the following six years, the Intifada became more organised and included economic and cultural measures aimed at disrupting the Israeli occupation.
More than a thousand people were killed in the violence. Despite public outrage, Israel heeded American calls to refrain from hitting back and did not participate in that war.
In , Yitzhak Rabin became Prime Minister following an election in which his party called for compromise with Israel's neighbors. Under the leadership of Benjamin Netanyahu at the end of the s, Israel withdrew from Hebron ,  and signed the Wye River Memorandum , giving greater control to the Palestinian National Authority.
During the summit, Barak offered a plan for the establishment of a Palestinian state. Some commentators contend that the uprising was pre-planned by Arafat due to the collapse of peace talks.
During his tenure, Sharon carried out his plan to unilaterally withdraw from the Gaza Strip and also spearheaded the construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier ,  ending the Intifada.
In July , a Hezbollah artillery assault on Israel's northern border communities and a cross-border abduction of two Israeli soldiers precipitated the month-long Second Lebanon War.
At the end of , Israel entered another conflict as a ceasefire between Hamas and Israel collapsed. The —09 Gaza War lasted three weeks and ended after Israel announced a unilateral ceasefire.
Despite neither the rocket launchings nor Israeli retaliatory strikes having completely stopped, the fragile ceasefire remained in order.
The Iranian—Israeli conflict gradually emerged from the declared hostility of post-revolutionary Islamic Republic of Iran towards Israel since , into covert Iranian support of Hezbollah during the South Lebanon conflict — and essentially developed into a proxy regional conflict from With increasing Iranian involvement in the Syrian Civil War from the conflict shifted from proxy warfare into direct confrontation by early Israel is located in the Levant area of the Fertile Crescent region.
The country is at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea , bounded by Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan and the West Bank to the east, and Egypt and the Gaza Strip to the southwest.
Despite its small size, Israel is home to a variety of geographic features, from the Negev desert in the south to the inland fertile Jezreel Valley , mountain ranges of the Galilee , Carmel and toward the Golan in the north.
The Israeli coastal plain on the shores of the Mediterranean is home to most of the nation's population. Unique to Israel and the Sinai Peninsula are makhteshim , or erosion cirques.
This tectonic disposition leads to a relatively high seismic activity in the region. The entire Jordan Valley segment is thought to have ruptured repeatedly, for instance during the last two major earthquakes along this structure in and The most catastrophic known earthquakes occurred in 31 BCE, , , and CE, that is every ca.
Temperatures in Israel vary widely, especially during the winter. Coastal areas, such as those of Tel Aviv and Haifa , have a typical Mediterranean climate with cool, rainy winters and long, hot summers.
The area of Beersheba and the Northern Negev have a semi-arid climate with hot summers, cool winters, and fewer rainy days than the Mediterranean climate.
The Southern Negev and the Arava areas have a desert climate with very hot, dry summers, and mild winters with few days of rain.
The highest temperature in the continent of Asia Four different phytogeographic regions exist in Israel, due to the country's location between the temperate and tropical zones, bordering the Mediterranean Sea in the west and the desert in the east.
For this reason, the flora and fauna of Israel are extremely diverse. There are 2, known species of plants found in Israel. Of these, at least species are introduced and non-native.
Tiberias and the Sea of Galilee. Field of Anemone coronaria , national flower of Israel. Makhtesh Ramon , a type of crater unique to Israel and the Sinai Peninsula.
Exact figures are unknown, as many of them are living in the country illegally,  but estimates run in the region of , Israel was established as a homeland for the Jewish people and is often referred to as a Jewish state.
The country's Law of Return grants all Jews and those of Jewish ancestry the right to Israeli citizenship.
Three quarters of the population are Jews from a diversity of Jewish backgrounds. Jews who left or fled Arab and Muslim countries and their descendants, including both Mizrahi and Sephardi Jews,  form most of the rest of the Jewish population.
In addition to the West Bank settlements, there were more than , Jews living in East Jerusalem ,  and 20, in the Golan Heights.
There are four major metropolitan areas: Gush Dan Tel Aviv metropolitan area; population 3,, , Jerusalem metropolitan area population 1,, , Haifa metropolitan area population , , and Beersheba metropolitan area population , Israel has 16 cities with populations over , In all, there are 77 Israeli localities granted "municipalities" or "city" status by the Ministry of the Interior,  four of which are in the West Bank.
Kasif , a planned city to be built in the Negev , and Harish , originally a small town that is being built into a large city since Israeli sovereignty over East Jerusalem is internationally unrecognized.
Israel has one official language, Hebrew. Arabic previously had been considered an official language of the State of Israel;  in it was classified as having a 'special status in the state' with its use by state institutions to be set in law.
Arabic is spoken by the Arab minority, with Hebrew taught in Arab schools. As a country of immigrants , many languages can be heard on the streets.
Due to mass immigration from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia some , Ethiopian Jews live in Israel ,   Russian and Amharic are widely spoken.
English was an official language during the Mandate period; it lost this status after the establishment of Israel, but retains a role comparable to that of an official language,    as may be seen in road signs and official documents.
Many Israelis communicate reasonably well in English, as many television programs are broadcast in English with subtitles and the language is taught from the early grades in elementary school.
In addition, Israeli universities offer courses in the English language on various subjects. The religious affiliation of Israeli Jews varies widely: The city of Jerusalem is of special importance to Jews, Muslims and Christians as it is the home of sites that are pivotal to their religious beliefs, such as the Old City that incorporates the Western Wall and the Temple Mount , the Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
Kababir , Haifa's mixed neighbourhood of Jews and Ahmadi Arabs is the only one of its kind in the country.
Education is highly valued in the Israeli culture and was viewed as a fundamental block of ancient Israelites. Israel has a school life expectancy of 16 years and a literacy rate of The public secular is the largest school group, and is attended by the majority of Jewish and non-Arab pupils in Israel.
Most Arabs send their children to schools where Arabic is the language of instruction. Proficiency in core subjects such as mathematics, the Hebrew language , Hebrew and general literature, the English language , history, Biblical scripture and civics is necessary to receive a Bagrut certificate.
This figure has remained stable in their already high levels of educational attainment over recent generations. Israel has a tradition of higher education where its quality university education has been largely responsible in spurring the nations modern economic development.
Ariel University , in the West Bank , is the newest university institution, upgraded from college status, and the first in over thirty years.
Israel is a parliamentary democracy with universal suffrage. A member of parliament supported by a parliamentary majority becomes the prime minister —usually this is the chair of the largest party.
The prime minister is the head of government and head of the cabinet. Membership of the Knesset is based on proportional representation of political parties ,  with a 3.
Residents of Israeli settlements in the West Bank are eligible to vote;  in the most recent elections , 10 of the MKs were settlers.
The Basic Laws of Israel function as an uncodified constitution. In , the Knesset began to draft an official constitution based on these laws.
Israel has no official religion,    but the definition of the state as " Jewish and democratic " creates a strong connection with Judaism, as well as a conflict between state law and religious law.
Interaction between the political parties keeps the balance between state and religion largely as it existed during the British Mandate.
The bill ascribes "special status" to the Arabic language. The same bill gives Jews a unique right to national self-determination, and views the developing of Jewish settlement in the country as "a national interest," empowering the government to "take steps to encourage, advance and implement this interest.
Israel has a three-tier court system. At the lowest level are magistrate courts, situated in most cities across the country. Above them are district courts , serving as both appellate courts and courts of first instance ; they are situated in five of Israel's six districts.
The third and highest tier is the Supreme Court , located in Jerusalem; it serves a dual role as the highest court of appeals and the High Court of Justice.
In the latter role, the Supreme Court rules as a court of first instance, allowing individuals, both citizens and non-citizens, to petition against the decisions of state authorities.
Israel's legal system combines three legal traditions: English common law , civil law , and Jewish law. Court cases are decided by professional judges rather than juries.
Jewish , Muslim , Druze, and Christian. The election of judges is carried out by a committee of two Knesset members, three Supreme Court justices, two Israeli Bar members and two ministers one of which, Israel's justice minister , is the committee's chairman.
The committee's members of the Knesset are secretly elected by the Knesset, and one of them is traditionally a member of the opposition, the committee's Supreme Court justices are chosen by tradition from all Supreme Court justices by seniority, the Israeli Bar members are elected by the bar, and the second minister is appointed by the Israeli cabinet.
The current justice minister and committee's chairwoman is Ayelet Shaked. Both General and Labor courts are paperless courts: Human Dignity and Liberty seeks to defend human rights and liberties in Israel.
As a result of " Enclave law ", large portions of Israeli civil law are applied to Israeli settlements and Israeli residents in the occupied territories.
The State of Israel is divided into six main administrative districts , known as mehozot Hebrew: All of the Judea and Samaria Area and parts of the Jerusalem and Northern districts are not recognized internationally as part of Israel.
Districts are further divided into fifteen sub-districts known as nafot Hebrew: Since Israel's capture of these territories, Israeli settlements and military installations have been built within each of them, except Lebanon.
The Golan Heights and East Jerusalem have been fully incorporated into Israel under Israeli law, but not under international law.
Israel has applied civilian law to both areas and granted their inhabitants permanent residency status and the ability to apply for citizenship.
The UN Security Council has declared the annexation of the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem to be "null and void" and continues to view the territories as occupied.
The West Bank excluding East Jerusalem is known in Israeli law as the Judea and Samaria Area ; the almost , Israeli settlers residing in the area are considered part of Israel's population, have Knesset representation, a large part of Israel's civil and criminal laws applied to them, and their output is considered part of Israel's economy.
Israeli political opposition to annexation is primarily due to the perceived "demographic threat" of incorporating the West Bank's Palestinian population into Israel.
The international community maintains that Israel does not have sovereignty in the West Bank, and considers Israel's control of the area to be the longest military occupation is modern history.
Only Britain recognized this annexation and Jordan has since ceded its claim to the territory to the PLO. The population are mainly Palestinians , including refugees of the Arab—Israeli War.
Since the Israel—PLO letters of recognition , most of the Palestinian population and cities have been under the internal jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority , and only partial Israeli military control, although Israel has on several occasions redeployed its troops and reinstated full military administration during periods of unrest.
In response to increasing attacks during the Second Intifada , the Israeli government started to construct the Israeli West Bank barrier.
The Gaza Strip is considered to be a "foreign territory" under Israeli law; however, since Israel operates a land, air, and sea blockade of the Gaza Strip , together with Egypt, the international community considers Israel to be the occupying power.
The Gaza Strip was occupied by Egypt from to and then by Israel after In , as part of Israel's unilateral disengagement plan , Israel removed all of its settlers and forces from the territory, however, it continues to maintain control of its airspace and waters.
The international community, including numerous international humanitarian organizations and various bodies of the UN, consider Gaza to remain occupied.
The International Court of Justice , principal judicial organ of the UN, asserted, in its advisory opinion on the legality of the construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier , that the lands captured by Israel in the Six-Day War, including East Jerusalem, are occupied territory.
State Department ,  mass arbitrary arrests, torture, unlawful killings, systemic abuses and impunity by Amnesty International and others       and a denial of the right to Palestinian self-determination.
Israel maintains diplomatic relations with countries and has diplomatic missions around the world;  countries with whom they have no diplomatic relations include most Muslim countries.
Egypt and Jordan signed peace treaties in and , respectively, and Mauritania opted for full diplomatic relations with Israel in Despite the peace treaty between Israel and Egypt, Israel is still widely considered an enemy country among Egyptians.
The United States and the Soviet Union were the first two countries to recognize the State of Israel, having declared recognition roughly simultaneously.
Although Turkey and Israel did not establish full diplomatic relations until ,  Turkey has cooperated with the Jewish state since its recognition of Israel in Turkey's ties to the other Muslim-majority nations in the region have at times resulted in pressure from Arab and Muslim states to temper its relationship with Israel.
The joint Cyprus-Israel oil and gas explorations centered on the Leviathan gas field are an important factor for Greece, given its strong links with Cyprus.
Azerbaijan is one of the few majority Muslim countries to develop bilateral strategic and economic relations with Israel.
Azerbaijan supplies Israel with a substantial amount of its oil needs, and Israel has helped modernize the Armed Forces of Azerbaijan.
India established full diplomatic ties with Israel in and has fostered a strong military, technological and cultural partnership with the country since then.
Israeli foreign aid ranks low among OECD nations, spending less than 0. The country also ranked 43rd in the World Giving Index. A medical clinic run by an IDF team of some 50 members featured pediatric, surgical, maternity and gynecological, and otolaryngology wards, together with an optometry department, a laboratory, a pharmacy and an intensive care unit.
After treating patients in two weeks, the departing emergency team donated its equipment to the Japanese. The IDF consist of the army , air force and navy.
It was founded during the Arab—Israeli War by consolidating paramilitary organizations—chiefly the Haganah —that preceded the establishment of the state.
Most Israelis are drafted into the military at the age of Men serve two years and eight months and women two years. Most women are exempt from reserve duty.
Arab citizens of Israel except the Druze and those engaged in full-time religious studies are exempt from military service , although the exemption of yeshiva students has been a source of contention in Israeli society for many years.
The nation's military relies heavily on high-tech weapons systems designed and manufactured in Israel as well as some foreign imports.
The Arrow missile is one of the world's few operational anti-ballistic missile systems. Israel is widely believed to possess nuclear weapons  as well as chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction.
Since Israel's establishment, military expenditure constituted a significant portion of the country's gross domestic product , with peak of Israel is considered the most advanced country in Southwest Asia and the Middle East in economic and industrial development.
Despite limited natural resources, intensive development of the agricultural and industrial sectors over the past decades has made Israel largely self-sufficient in food production, apart from grains and beef.
Israel has one of the lowest external debts in the developed world, and is a lender in terms of net external debt assets vs. Israel has the second-largest number of startup companies in the world after the United States,  and the third-largest number of NASDAQ-listed companies after the U.
Days of working time in Israel are Sunday through Thursday for a five-day workweek , or Friday for a six-day workweek.
In observance of Shabbat , in places where Friday is a work day and the majority of population is Jewish, Friday is a "short day", usually lasting till Several proposals have been raised to adjust the work week with the majority of the world, and make Sunday a non-working day, while extending working time of other days or replacing Friday with Sunday as a work day.
Israel's development of cutting-edge technologies in software, communications and the life sciences have evoked comparisons with Silicon Valley.
The ongoing shortage of water in the country has spurred innovation in water conservation techniques, and a substantial agricultural modernization , drip irrigation , was invented in Israel.
Israel is also at the technological forefront of desalination and water recycling. The Sorek desalination plant is the largest seawater reverse osmosis SWRO desalination facility in the world.
As a result of innovations in reverse osmosis technology, Israel is set to become a net exporter of water in the coming years. Israel has embraced solar energy ; its engineers are on the cutting edge of solar energy technology  and its solar companies work on projects around the world.
It was thought that this would have lowered Israel's oil dependency and lowered the fuel costs of hundreds of Israel's motorists that use cars powered only by electric batteries.
Israel is served by two international airports , Ben Gurion Airport , the country's main hub for international air travel near Tel Aviv, and Ovda Airport , which serves the southernmost port city of Eilat.
There are several small domestic airports as well. Tourism, especially religious tourism , is an important industry in Israel, with the country's temperate climate, beaches , archaeological , other historical and biblical sites, and unique geography also drawing tourists.
Israel's security problems have taken their toll on the industry, but the number of incoming tourists is on the rebound.
Israel began producing natural gas from its own offshore gas fields in Between and , Israel had imported gas from Egypt via the al- Arish—Ashkelon pipeline , which was terminated due to Egyptian Crisis of In , a natural gas reserve, Tamar was found near the coast of Israel.
A second natural gas reserve, Leviathan , was discovered in In , Israel began commercial production of natural gas from the Tamar field.
As of , Israel produced over 7. Ketura Sun is Israel's first commercial solar field. Built in early by the Arava Power Company on Kibbutz Ketura , Ketura Sun covers twenty acres and is expected to produce green energy amounting to 4.
The field consists of 18, photovoltaic panels made by Suntech , which will produce about 9 gigawatt-hours GWh of electricity per year.
Israel's diverse culture stems from the diversity of its population. Jews from diaspora communities around the world brought their cultural and religious traditions back with them, creating a melting pot of Jewish customs and beliefs.
Work and school holidays are determined by the Jewish holidays , and the official day of rest is Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath.
Israeli literature is primarily poetry and prose written in Hebrew , as part of the renaissance of Hebrew as a spoken language since the midth century, although a small body of literature is published in other languages, such as English.
By law, two copies of all printed matter published in Israel must be deposited in the National Library of Israel at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
In , the law was amended to include audio and video recordings, and other non-print media. The Pessoptimist , and other writings, won him the Israel prize for Arabic literature; and Mahmoud Darwish , considered by many to be "the Palestinian national poet.
Israeli music contains musical influences from all over the world; Mizrahi and Sephardic music , Hasidic melodies, Greek music , jazz , and pop rock are all part of the music scene.
The movie Ajami was the third consecutive nomination of an Israeli film. Continuing the strong theatrical traditions of the Yiddish theatre in Eastern Europe, Israel maintains a vibrant theatre scene.
Founded in , Habima Theatre in Tel Aviv is Israel's oldest repertory theater company and national theater.
The Israel Museum in Jerusalem is one of Israel's most important cultural institutions  and houses the Dead Sea Scrolls ,  along with an extensive collection of Judaica and European art.
Israel has the highest number of museums per capita in the world. Mayer Institute for Islamic Art , both in Jerusalem.
The Rockefeller specializes in archaeological remains from the Ottoman and other periods of Middle East history. It is also the home of the first hominid fossil skull found in Western Asia called Galilee Man.
Israeli cuisine includes local dishes as well as Jewish cuisine brought to the country by immigrants from the diaspora. Since the establishment of the state in , and particularly since the late s, an Israeli fusion cuisine has developed.
It incorporates many foods traditionally eaten in the Levantine , Arab , Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines, such as falafel , hummus , shakshouka , couscous , and za'atar.
Schnitzel , pizza , hamburgers , French fries , rice and salad are also common in Israel. Roughly half of the Israeli-Jewish population attests to keeping kosher at home.
The most popular spectator sports in Israel are association football and basketball. The Asian Games held in Tehran, were the last Asian Games in which Israel participated , and was plagued by the Arab countries which refused to compete with Israel.
Israel was excluded from the Asian Games and since then has not competed in Asian sport events. Chess is a leading sport in Israel and is enjoyed by people of all ages.
There are many Israeli grandmasters and Israeli chess players have won a number of youth world championships.
The Ministry of Education and the World Chess Federation agreed upon a project of teaching chess within Israeli schools, and it has been introduced into the curriculum of some schools.
Owing partly to Soviet immigration, it is home to the largest number of chess grandmasters of any city in the world. Israeli grandmaster Boris Gelfand won the Chess World Cup  and the Candidates Tournament for the right to challenge the world champion.
He only lost the World Chess Championship to reigning world champion Anand after a speed-chess tie breaker.
Israel has won nine Olympic medals since its first win in , including a gold medal in windsurfing at the Summer Olympics. The Summer Paralympics were hosted by Israel.
Israeli tennis champion Shahar Pe'er ranked 11th in the world on 31 January Its effectiveness and practical approach to self-defense, have won it widespread admiration and adherence around the world.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the modern country. For other uses, see Israel disambiguation.
Prehistory of the Levant. History of ancient Israel and Judah. Hasmonean dynasty , Herodian dynasty , and Jewish—Roman wars.
Balfour Declaration and Intercommunal conflict in Mandatory Palestine. The Maccabaeans will rise again. Let me repeat once more my opening words: The Jews wish to have a State, and they shall have one.
We shall live at last as free men on our own soil, and die peacefully in our own home. The world will be freed by our liberty, enriched by our wealth, magnified by our greatness.
And whatever we attempt there to accomplish for our own welfare will react with beneficent force for the good of humanity.
Israeli—Palestinian peace process and Iran—Israel proxy conflict. One-state solution , Two-state solution , Three-state solution , and Lieberman Plan.
Geography of Israel and Wildlife of Israel. Satellite images of Israel and neighboring territories during the day left and night right.
List of earthquakes in the Levant. Demographics of Israel and Israelis. For a more comprehensive list, see List of cities in Israel.
Religion in Israel and Abrahamic religions. Religion in Israel v t e. Politics of Israel and Israeli system of government.
Criticism of the Israeli government. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. Judiciary of Israel and Israeli law.
Foreign relations of Israel and International recognition of Israel. No diplomatic relations, but former trade relations. This section's representation of one or more viewpoints about a controversial issue may be unbalanced or inaccurate.
Please improve the article or discuss the issue on the talk page. Israel Defense Forces and Israeli security forces.
List of wars involving Israel , List of the Israel Defense Forces operations , and Israel and weapons of mass destruction.
Science and technology in Israel and List of Israeli inventions and discoveries. Music of Israel and Dance in Israel. For a more comprehensive list, see List of Israeli museums.
See Status of Jerusalem for more information. Gaza is still considered to be " occupied " by the United Nations, international human rights organisations, and the majority of governments and legal commentators, despite the Israeli disengagement from Gaza , due to various forms of ongoing military and economic control.
For more details of this terminology dispute, including with respect to the current status of the Gaza Strip, see International views on the Israeli-occupied territories and Status of territories captured by Israel.
For an explanation of the differences between an annexed but disputed territory e. The New York Times.
Retrieved 6 December The Czech Republic currently, before the peace between Israel and Palestine is signed, recognizes Jerusalem to be in fact the capital of Israel in the borders of the demarcation line from Guatemala's embassy was located in Jerusalem until the s, when it was moved to Tel Aviv.
Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 8 August The Arabic language has a special status in the state; Regulating the use of Arabic in state institutions or by them will be set in law.
Retrieved 16 April Travelmath provides an online flight time calculator for all types of travel routes.
You can enter airports, cities, states, countries, or zip codes to find the flying time between any two points.
The database uses the great circle distance and the average airspeed of a commercial airliner to figure out how long a typical flight would take.
Find your travel time to estimate the length of a flight between airports, or ask how long it takes to fly from one city to another. The flight time from Spain to Israel is: Click here to show map.
Israel portal Spain portal. Archived from the original on Retrieved October 9, Foreign relations of Israel. Foreign relations of Spain. Retrieved from " https: Webarchive template wayback links Articles with Spanish-language external links CS1 maint: Views Read Edit View history.
In other projects Wikimedia Commons.